(From the Sanskrit upa-nishad, literally "a sitting down beside" — from upa, near to + ni-shad, to sit or lie down, as when participating in a discussion or listening to a lecture)
A series of philosophical treatises that were probably created between 800-500 BCE by wandering Indian ascetics and eventually appended to the Vedas.
1. Key Hindu philosophical concepts such as samsara, karma, dharma, and moksha were introduced and developped in them.
2. They are considered sruti, divine revelation.
3. The key conclusion of the Upanishads is that Atman equals Brahman, i.e., that which is the essence of the individual is the same as that which is the essence of the universe.
4. Click here to listen to an clear explanation of what the Upanishads are.
5. The Upanishadic Sages were contemporaneous with The Buddha and Mahavira.