(Sanskrit ny-aya, literally "recursion" but it was actually used in the sense of "syllogism" or "inference")
The name given to one of the six astika schools of Hindu philosophy. It is also known as the School of Logic.
Their key contribution to Hindu thought is the methodology they use to prove existence of God, which is based on a system of logic that, subsequently, has been adopted by the majority of the other Indian schools, orthodox or not.
1. They believed that obtaining valid knowledge was the only way to obtain release from suffering. They thus were careful to identify valid sources of knowledge (pramanas); ultimately, they distilled it to four: perception, inference, comparison, and testimony.
2. The Nyaya school's key texts are the Nyaya Sutras, written in the 2nd century CE. To read them, click here.