The religious system founded by Siddhartha Gautama aka The Buddha.
In a nutshell, Buddhism is a doctrine of salvation, i.e. a set of concepts and behaviours whose goal is to lead the individual to a better state.
The system arose from Gautama's purported belief — it is purported because no one actually knows what he really said: everything we know about him derives from orally transmitted legend — that the real world we live and die in is a hopeless and terrible place full of suffering and disappointment.
Some key concepts include: samsara, karma, dharma, dukkha, anatta, and anicca.
1. Click here to read Sam Harris' essay on removing the mysticism from Buddhism entitled Killing the Buddha. Click here to read a PDF of it.
2. Christians seek and hope for immortality; Buddhists and Hindus assume immortality and try to extinguish it.