Antisthenes (c. 445 – 365 BCE)
A Greek philosopher and elder pupil of Socrates who developed the ethical side of Socrates' teachings (as opposed to Plato's focus on the theoretical side).

He promoted the virtuous ascetic life, and is considered to be the founder of the cynic philosophy.

1. Antisthenes: "Pay attention to your enemies because they are the first to discover your mistakes."

2. "His main idea is expressed in the sentence: Only virtue is a good and sin an evil — all else is indifferent.

Since the only good for a man is what is appropriate to him and this is nothing more than his mental and spiritual possessions; everything else, fortune, honor, freedom, health — life itself — are in themselves not goods; nor are poverty, shame, slavery, illness and death in themselves evils.

Least of all should pleasure be regarded as a good and toil and labour as an evil. Since the former, when it becomes a man's master, corrupts him; while the latter may teach him virtue."
(Outlines of the history of Greek philosophy, Eduard Zeller)
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