| Definition -
A grammatical category pertaining to a distinction that some languages (but not English) make in verb conjugation and/or case assignment to express whether the subject intended the action or whether it was done involuntarily.
For example, in Hindi, when someone intends to do something, the subject noun gets the ergative case suffix, but when the subject did not intend to do it, the nominative case is used instead.
In English, this information is conveyed by using verbs that express intention, e.g., the sentence "he dropped the dog" does not indicate whether the action was intended or accidental. If intended, the sentence would be, perhaps, "he threw the dog down."