|Definition - A branch of linguistics that classifies languages by their shared grammatical and phonological features, not by their shared origin.|
Example - In linguistic typology, English is classified as an SVO language because its most common sentence pattern is subject -> verb -> object.
On the other hand, Arabic is classified as a VSO language because its most common sentence pattern is verb -> subject -> object.
Example Usages -
1. “For the substantial findings about universals across languages one must turn to the field of linguistic typology, which has laid bare a bewildering range of diverse languages, where the generalizations are really quite hard to extract.”
(Source: The Myth of Language Universals: Language diversity and its importance for cognitive science (Nicholas Evans & Stephen Levinson) )