Definition - The process of altering a foreign expression so that it fits the speech and spelling patterns of the borrowing language.

1. The word that results from the transformation is called a Hobson-Jobson.

Example -

(1) The Algonquian arakhun became the English raccoon.
(2) The Spanish juzgado, a tribunal, became the English hoosegow, jail.

Etymology -
The term was coined as a Hobson-Jobson of the Shia Muslim cry Ya Hasan, Ya Husayn, O Hasan! O Husain! — Hasan and Husain were grandsons of Muhammad killed while fighting for the faith.

Oxford English Dictionary -
The first citation for the term Hobson-Jobson is from 1829:
"The folks makes sich a noise … shouting Hobson Jobson, Hobson Jobson."
(Oriental Sporting Mag. (1873) I. 129/2)

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