exophora
Definition - The phenomenon of a word or phrase referring to something that has not been previously mentioned, thus the reader or listener uses situational knowledge to determine its significance.
Notes:
1. As opposed to endophora where the key information has been previously mentioned.

Example -

(1) A women walks up to two men wearing a bikini. One of the men says to the other: "She was lying on the beach." Here the she is exophoric because the discourse hasn't given us any information as to who she is.
(2) In contrast, in the statement: "I saw David an hour ago. He was looking at his watch." the he is endophoric because it refers to something or someone (i.e., David) that was previously mentioned.

Etymology -
The word derives from the Greek exo, outside + pherein, to carry.

Oxford English Dictionary -
Its first citation is from 1976:
"We shall find it useful … to have a special term for situational reference. This we are referring to as *exophora, or exophoric reference."
(Halliday & Hasan Cohesion in Eng. ii. 33)



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