The Dictionary of the Climate Debate (DCD)

Earth system model
Definition: (aka ESM)

A global climate model that has the added ability to represent bio-geochemical processes that interact with the climate; thus, for example, it can try to show the climate's response to forcings associated with GHG emissions.

Example Usages -

1. "The first attempts at coupling atmospheric and oceanic models were carried out during the late 1960s and early 1970s (Manabe and Bryan, 1969; Bryan et al., 1975; Manabe et al., 1975). Replacing ‘slab’ ocean models by fully coupled ocean-atmosphere models may arguably have constituted one of the most significant leaps forward in climate modelling during the last 20 years (Trenberth, 1993), although both the atmospheric and oceanic components themselves have undergone highly significant improvements. This advance has led to significant modifications in the patterns of simulated climate change, particularly in oceanic regions. It has also opened up the possibility of exploring transient climate scenarios, and it constitutes a step toward the development of comprehensive ‘Earth-system models’ that include explicit representations of chemical and biogeochemical cycles."
(Source: TAR - 1.5.3 Coupled Models: Evolution, Use, Assessment )

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